Moxifloxacin

The mechanism of action

Moxifloxacin is the 4th generation fluoroquinolone. Like other fluoroquinolones, it stops the duplication of bacterial DNA, as well as suppresses the production of recombinant DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV.

The antibacterial spectrum

Gram positive aerobic microorganisms:

  • Corinebacteria types
  • Corinebacterium diphtheriae
  • Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin sensitive)
  • Pneumococcus

Gram negative aerobic microorganisms:

  • Neisseria gonorheae

Auxiliary substances:

  • Boric acid
  • Sodium chloride
  • Sodium hydroxide (for pH adjustment)
  • Hydrochloric acid (for pH adjustment)
  • Distilled water

The eye drops of Moxifloxacin is absorbed moderately. In inpatient facility with a regimen for two eyes three times a day the maximal concentration of the medication (Cmax) is 2.7 ng / ml and AUC is 41.9 ng, respectively after four days of use. These values were 1600 and 1200 times lower than the orally administered therapeutic dose of moxifloxacin (400 mg).

The modes of administration and doses

It is administrated only locally. It is not assigned to the elderly, those over 65 years old. Not intended for injection. The solution should not be injected subcutaneously or directly into the anterior chamber of the eye.

The dosage: three times daily, one drop in each eye. Usually the infection passes within 5 days. The duration of the treatment depends on the degree, course, clinical and bacteriological condition of the infection.

In pediatrics it is used in the same doses and modes.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to any of the components of moxifloxacin.

  • Periodic administration of quinolones can cause severe, sometimes fatal, hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions. In case of allergic reactions, Moxifloxacin should be stopped immediately and get a doctor’s office.
  • Prolonged use of moxifloxacin may lead to overgrowth of some microorganisms, including fungi. This drug is not recommended for the treatment of neonatal pneumonia.
  • Moxifloxacin should not be used for the prevention of gonococcal infections, including neonatal conjunctivitis associated with Neisseria gonorrhea resistant to fluoroquinolones.
  • Moxifloxacin should not be used in children under 2 years of age with conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis due to lack of evidence of efficacy and safety of the drug.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

Moxifloxacin eye drops are allowed to use during pregnancy.

It is assumed that the use of Moxifloxacin has no side effects on the breastfed baby.

Side effects

No serious ocular and systemic adverse reactions have been reported in clinical trials. The main side effect was eye irritation and pain (in 1-2% of participants in clinical trials), which was not a reason to stop treatment.

  • Blood and lymphatic system disorders: rarely – a decrease in hemoglobin
  • Cardiovascular disorders: no side effect was registered
  • Immune system disorders: no hypersensitivity was registered
  • Nervous system disorders: rarely – headaches, not often – paranesthesia, dizziness was not registered
  • Respiratory disorders: rarely discomfort in the nasal cavity, sore throat, foreign body sensation in the throat, cough was not registered
  • Gastrointestinal disorders: not often ageusia (loss of taste), rarely: vomiting, nausea was not registered
  • Hepato-biliary system disorder: rarely elevation of GGT (Gamma-Glutamyl transferase) and AAT (Alanine Aminotransferase)
  • Skin և subcutaneous disorders: not registered erythema, rash, itching, or rash
  • Visual system disorders: often there were registered eye pain, irritation of the eyes, dryness, redness, itching, discomfort, spotted corneas, retinal hemorrhage, swelling of the eyelids. Rare: inflammation of the eyelids, erythema of the eyelids, defects of the corneal epithelium, inflammation of the larynx, swelling of the larynx, swelling of the eyes, asthenopia, decreased visual acuity. Not registered: corneal infiltration, erosion, edema, blur vision, ulcerative keratitis, ocular hypertension, endophthalmitis, photophobia, tearing, foreign body sensation in the eye.

Official representative: Demi Pharm LLC, Nairi Zaryan 22, Yerevan

Manufacturer: Balkanpharm a-Razgrad, Bulgaria